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Reverse Osmosis Drinking Water Systems
Water Softeners and Replacement Filters

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Reverse Osmosis System Process:
From the feed line the water enters the 1st stage, where it is filtered through a 5-micron sediment prefilter that removes silt, sand, sludge, and grit from the water supply.
The water is then filtered through the 2nd Stage, where an extremely fine carbon block filter removes compounds such as pesticides and a host of chemicals which have been deemed primary drinking hazards by the EPA.
Next is the Reverse-Osmosis membrane, 3rd stage, cleansing the water down to the ionic range (0.001), which rejects up to 99% of contaminates such as salt, nitrates, lead, fluoride, iron, copper, mercury, and arsenic, PFC's.  It also filters out bacterium such as Guardian Cysts and Cryptosporidium. The water then enters a storage tank until needed.
The final filtration process, just prior to the faucet is the 4th stage. This filter is the carbon postfilter, its job is to give the water a final polish to improve taste.


Filter and Membrane Replacement:

The sediment prefilter and carbon filters are changed every once a year. The Reverse Osmosis membrane is changed between three to five years, depending on use and incoming water quality.
PureTap will notify you when it is time to change filters, so you don't have to worry about keeping track.


Reverse Osmosis Technology:
Reverse Osmosis (RO) is the leading technology for removing suspended and dissolved matter and contaminants from drinking water. (RO) is the most convenient and economical method to purify water. This purification process is also used by many water bottling plants.  

How it Works:
It is the process by which water molecules are forced through a semi-permeable membrane by water pressure where ion exclusion occurs. With ion exclusion, water molecules form a barrier that allows other water molecules to pass through while excluding most contaminants. Only very small molecules are able to pass through the pores of an RO membrane. Even dissolved mineral molecules are too large to penetrate the pores. For example, pesticides, bacteria, and viruses are unable to pass through the pores of the membrane, and therefore are flushed down the drain. Up to 99% of impurities and chemicals are rinsed down the drain while the product - pure water - is saved in a storage tank. RO also combines an activated carbon filter, which can provide added treatment for volatile organic compounds (VOC's- include substances such as benzene, toluene, methylene chloride, and methyl chloroform.) not treated by the RO membrane itself.

How Membranes Separate Substances?
Metals, organic compounds, and other contaminants are either too large or chemically unable to pass through the reverse osmosis membrane.

Size Comparison: 
Comparatively, if water moecule were the size of a tennis ball...
Most metals and inorganic compounds would be the size of a softball;
Most organic compounds would be the size of a basketball;

Protozoa would be the size of Mount St. Helens:
Bacteria would be the size of a pyramid; and...
Viruses would be the size of a bus.

Some of the substances Reverse Osmosis removes:
- Percentage Removed - (typical)

Calcium 98% 
Sodium  98% 
Magnesium 98%
Iron  98%
Potassium 97% 
Manganese   98%
Aluminum 98% 
Copper 98%
Nickel  98% 
Cadmium 98%
Silver 97%
Zinc 99% 
Mercury 97% 
Hardness 98% 
Radioactivity 98%
Chlorine 95%
Ammonium 95% 
Virus 99%
Phosphate 98%
Cyanide 95%
Sulfate 98%
Thiosulfate 98%
Silicate 96%
Nitrate 95%
Fluoride 95%
Polyphosphate 99% 
Orthophosphate 99%
Chromate 97%
Lead 98 % 
Besides the highly efficient filtration of the reverse osmosis membrane this system has two carbon block filters which will remove or significantly reduce over 50 chemical substances that have been deemed primary drinking water hazards by the EPA.

They include:

Adipates (diethylhexyl)
Alachor
Aldicarb
Atrazine
Benz (a) anthracine (PAH)
Benzene
Benzo
Butyl benzyl phthalate (PAE)
Cadmium
Carbofuran
Carbon tetrachloride
Chlordane
Chlorine
Chloramines

Chrysene
Dalapon
Di (20ethylhexl) adipate
Dibenz (a,h) antracene
Dibromochloropropane
Dichlorobenzene
Dichloroethane (1,2-)
Dichloroethylene
Dichloropropane
Diethylhexyl phthalate (PAE)
Dinoseb
Diquat
Endothall
Endrin
Ethylbenzene


Ethelene dibromide (EDB)
Glyphosate
Heptachlor
Hexachlorobenzene
Hexachlorocyclopentadiene
Indo (1,2,3-c,d) pyrene (PAH)
Lindane
Mercury (organic complexes)
MethoxychlorMethylene Blue
Monochlorobenzene
Oxymal
Pentachlorophenol
Picloram
PCB's
PFC's: PFOS, PFOA, PFBA
Simarzine
Styrene
2,3,7,8-TCDD (dioxin)
2,4,5-TP (silvex)
TCB's
Tetrachloroethylene
TCE's
Trichloroethylene
THM's
Trihalomethanes
Toluene
Toxaphane
Vinyl chloride
Xylenes

Reverse Osmosis and PH

Water Softener | Water Purification | Whole House Filter

RO Technical Info | Links | Contact | Testimonials | Home

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